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Boosted Willys - F134 Engine Swap with a twist

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unclemoak View Drop Down
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote unclemoak Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Topic: Boosted Willys - F134 Engine Swap with a twist
    Posted: 22 Oct. 2019 at 1:35am
After an eventful Jeeping season all around the country, I've decided to switch things up a bit. One of my main complaints of the L134 was the lack of power, though I've had good luck with reliability in general, I've considered a few ways to make it even better. 

I've given quite a bit of thought about the route I want to go ranging from just rebuilding an L134, to a V6 swap, or a Kubota swap. After weighing the options and the amount of time, dollars, and fabrication work needed for each, I decided to do a seeming rather mundane swap of the F134, but with a twist. 

Now I know what you're thinking, the F134 is a whopping 15 more HP over the L134, well I have a few ideas to eek a bit more power out of it. The first being building my own fuel injection setup, the second being forced induction.

The main reason I decided on the F134 was that it will bolt right in to my 3a. That was the biggest consideration at the moment because I didn't want to change the transmission etc, was the fact that it would bolt to my existing T90c, Super 18 transfer case, motor mounts, exhaust, and radiator.

During some trips this year, there was a huge variance in climate and altitude, so my jeep did seem to have some issues and I honestly don't want to have to re-tune it on every trip. My plan to combat that was to add fuel injection, so the jeep should self-tune to some degree and be able to adjust the fuel map and timing for changing conditions. Another idea I had was to explore forced induction mainly to help alleviate the thin air on trips to Colorado.  

Stay tuned as I outline some more details of the project and periodic updates as things progress.




Edited by unclemoak - 22 Oct. 2019 at 7:45pm
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Ol' Unreliable View Drop Down
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Ol' Unreliable Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 22 Oct. 2019 at 11:56pm
Okay now you've done it--now we NEED to see this project!  You are committed!  Thumbs Up 
There's a reason it's called Ol' Unreliable
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Joe DeYoung Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 23 Oct. 2019 at 8:03am
Cool Dave. Looking forward to updates to this post as you progress through this project.
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to many jeeps, parts, and accessories to list here, but apparently enough to keep me in trouble with my wife.





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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote rocnroll Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 23 Oct. 2019 at 10:18am
Interesting project for sure!

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote otto Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 23 Oct. 2019 at 9:09pm
I’m intrigued. I’m also curious about how much those spindly connecting rods can take.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote unclemoak Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 23 Oct. 2019 at 11:32pm
I'd like to talk a little more about the design of the fuel injection system. For starters, I did consider adapting a Hamilton, Holley, or another off the shelf solution to my engine, but after a few days of reading I decided that I wasn't really pleased with their offerings and decided to just build one myself.

Now I know for the average person building a fuel injection setup from scratch might seem a little crazy, but bear with me. I've never done anything this complicated myself, but I do have an engineering degree, my day job is as a project manager for an automotive OEM, and I own a machine shop on the side, so while I don't have any formal training or knowledge on fuel injection, in my mind, it's nothing that can't be overcome with a bunch of Googling and Youtube videos.


Fuel Injection System
After a good 2-3 weeks of research on diy fuel injection, other's Willys fuel injection projects, etc, I came across an engine management ECU called Mega Squirt. It's essentially an open architecture framework that can control many things on a vehicle from fuel injection to transmission shifting and a few others. In my research, I found that the same company offered a paired down version called Mirco Squirt.

For the brave, you can go down the worm hole of reading about it if you'd like - http://www.microsquirtmodule.com/index.htm

I spent a few days reading about what the system was capable of. My biggest concerns was that the system could use a Mass Air Flow (MAF) sensor because I wanted to use a super charger. I also wanted to understand how complicated this whole things was. 

Here's what a fully featured wiring diagram would look like. As you can see, this is easily going to double or triple the wiring in my simple jeep.

As you can see there are a host of things that need wired to get the system to function.

MAF - Mass Air Flow Sensor
MAP - Manifold Absolute Pressure
IAT - Intake Air Temperature
CLT - Coolant Temperature
IAC - Idle Air Control
TPS - Throttle Position Sensor




What's kind of cool is that the Micro squirt is really just a frame work, and I can tailor the system to my application. 

As mentioned in the video, I plan to use a single injector GM throttle body that would have come of a 2.5L Iron Duke of late 80s-early 90s vintage. It's similar in size and also already contains a throttle position sensor, Idle air control valve, and the injector itself.

Granted this is all going to be a little complicated to hook up to a F134 cylinder head because the manifold is integral to the head, but I think the area close to the carb will work for the IAT and MAP sensors. I plan to use a Ford 6-wire MAF because it has an integral IAT sensor. The coolant sensor will just go in the normal hole in the head. Aside from those, the 02 sensor will need a bung welded in the exhaust somewhere. It sounds like it's a bit more work to wire, but I plan to use a wide band 02 sensors because it can help the computer see a wider deviation of readings from the exhaust to better dial in the computer and fuel map.

One nice thing about using a ECU like Micro squirt is that I can control the entire spark curve of the engine. I've read many accounts that the standard 17 degrees (or whatever it is) of advance in a stock distributor just isn't enough for modern fuels. Well since this will allow me to control the entire curve independent of the mechanical limits of a stock distributor, I shouldn't have a problem using as much or as little advance as I want. 

**there's also a way to hook up an ethanol sensor that will adjust the fuel and spark maps based on the amount of ethanol in the gas. I might not do this initially in an effort to keep things simpler, but how cool would it be not to have to worry about being able to find ethanol free gas??

Super Charger
The super charger I plan to use is a McCulloch VS57 unit that came out of a Kaiser Darin with a L226 Super Hurricane. 

Lots of info, history, and specs are available here - http://vs57.y-block.info/

What's interesting to me is that the unit is actually somewhat advanced for it's time. It's equipped with a variable speed drive pulley, a planetary setup inside that speeds up the pulley rpm by roughly 4.5:1, and an internal boost overdrive controller that switches the unit to high boost via a momentary switch at full throttle.

The brackets that came with the unit are intended for a L226, so I'll have to make some new ones. My intention is to mount the SC in the normal oil filter location to make piping it to the intake easier, but it will require me to more the oil filter, likely relocate the battery, and possibly a few other things depending on how the drive pulleys line up.

Engine
The engine itself isn't going to get too wild. I plan to rebuild an otherwise stock F134. 

The only things I plan to change porting and polishing the intake and exhaust runners a little bit, possibly a cam from Clifford Performance. The other consideration that someone suggested was using good quality bearings like the Tri-metal ones from Mahle to help handle the extra cylinder pressure from the supercharger.

The one one piece of engine hardware that I haven't figured out yet is the distributor. I'll need to remove the current advance weights and points and install some sort of hall effort sensor in it's place.





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Mark W. View Drop Down
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Mark W. Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 24 Oct. 2019 at 8:35am
A .060" over bore makes a 140 cuin engine.

Watch out that a Clifford cam is made for high RPM not mid range torque like you will want. You might also go crazy like I did and think about a Tri Y header the Clifford 4 into 1 will do little untill your at high RPM. The Tri Y design makes mid range HP and Torque.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote unclemoak Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 24 Oct. 2019 at 10:56am
Originally posted by Mark W. Mark W. wrote:

A .060" over bore makes a 140 cuin engine.

Watch out that a Clifford cam is made for high RPM not mid range torque like you will want. You might also go crazy like I did and think about a Tri Y header the Clifford 4 into 1 will do little untill your at high RPM. The Tri Y design makes mid range HP and Torque.

That’s for the heads up. I did email back and forth with Larry at Clifford a few times to try to understand the performance aspects of his cam, but after I explained what I was doing, he flat out refused to sell/grind me a cam. 


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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote drm101 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 24 Oct. 2019 at 12:25pm
There are other cam people out there. I'd guess if you called LSM engineering in Waterford MI, they would grind you a custom cam. I'm sure there are others. 
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Greaser007 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 24 Oct. 2019 at 12:48pm
   Keep dreaming Dave, and you'll get-er-done.   hahahaha BOOOST-IT.

   I've been driving an '02 Subaru Impreza WRX now for 13 years, and Love it !
So, with the popularity of 2.0 liter turbo-boosted auto's today, F.I. systems and matching turbo's are readily available.
   Because _ _ _ the intake plenums serve two cylinders each, you could mount two injectors on the intake runners to have Multi-port-fuel-injection. Then from same donor engine just re-use the Throttle body and all sensors as req'd, which would entail more R & D trial and error.
    According to my wife I seem to run on the "error" side of the tight-rope.
But, after having driven a GMC 6.5 Turbo diesel for another 15 years, I am somewhat familiar with operating and maintaining Turbo-systems.
    Maybe you could incorporate a turbo and FI off of a Nissan Juke. :)

    The Sky-is-the-Limit. With some playing around you might successfully wind up with an L134 with 100 lbs compression, running 24-lbs BOOST.
    Hang on to the seat of your Pants for sure !!!

Dang-it, I just remembered one-thing:   most turbo's don't spool-up and provide strong boost until 3k rpm.   The L134 prepped correctly should run easy at 5k rpm if balanced and some blue-printing performed. That is only a 2k rpm range.
You'll get it all sorted out, and will have loads of fun in the process.

I've been running a Clifford 4-bbl intake and headers on a Ford 300 inline six now for 20+ years, and very happy with his products. Yes, the 300 is still pretty gutless. Does Clifford say what the expected top rpm would be with his L134 camshaft ?

    Have fun with your mock-ups and build.

    Len

Edited by Greaser007 - 24 Oct. 2019 at 12:58pm
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote unclemoak Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 24 Oct. 2019 at 8:37pm
Found some donor engines locally. I’ll have to get them unloaded and start to tear them down. These I think came out of an FC as they have some weird brackets and a rear mounted oil filter.  

I have a third one lined up to pick up next week, so of the three, the one in the best condition will head to the machine shop while the other two get used to configure everything. One will likely be used for mock up of the super charger and oil filter brackets and the other go in the Jeep to check fitment against the hood and left fender. 




Edited by unclemoak - 24 Oct. 2019 at 8:39pm
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote unclemoak Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 01 Dec. 2019 at 5:34pm
Back to work on the Jeep. I had listed the chain drive ‘44 MB engine that got my through the Fall Colors Tour for sale and a local guy was picking it up, so I got busy this morning getting it tore out. 

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Jw60 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 03 Dec. 2019 at 2:55pm
There have been a few forced induction builds over on the ECJ5 site.
Some things to watch out with the f134 is the intake valves are huge compared to the bore and will float pretty easily at rpm or with extra pressure. Additionally you will want positive valve seals on the valve stems or oil will be pushed out of the crankcase. 
The omix electronic distributor will work with an 85 toyota pickup hall effect sensor and a gm hei igniition module and so it can trigger the mega squirt. 
Don't deck the block or mill the head to increase compression that's what the boost is for leave the chamber big to flow unrestricted and also hold a larger fuel and air charge overall. 
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Nick_ Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 03 Dec. 2019 at 3:40pm
Have you looked into Haltech? I've been studying ECU's for my RX7 build and they seem to have tons of features, simple user interface, and huge community support. It can also shut down the engine before catastrophic failure. This will read as many sensors as you want to install - including traction control.

If you wanna get real crazy, last week they released a beautiful display unit that plugs right into their ECU's. You can program warnings to flash on the dash if the afr's are dangerously lean, lose a coil, etc.

https://www.haltech.com/haltech-ic-7-display-dash-a-new-way-of-seeing-things/

The IC-7 screen is cheaper than installing a bunch of quality AEM or Innovate gauges to adequately monitor the engine. All of this might be overkill for your project since the ECU setup can be worth more than the Jeep, but just throwing it out there. Sometimes the peace of mind is worth more than swapping multiple blown engines.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote unclemoak Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 03 Dec. 2019 at 8:39pm
Originally posted by Jw60 Jw60 wrote:

There have been a few forced induction builds over on the ECJ5 site.
Some things to watch out with the f134 is the intake valves are huge compared to the bore and will float pretty easily at rpm or with extra pressure. Additionally you will want positive valve seals on the valve stems or oil will be pushed out of the crankcase. 
The omix electronic distributor will work with an 85 toyota pickup hall effect sensor and a gm hei igniition module and so it can trigger the mega squirt. 
Don't deck the block or mill the head to increase compression that's what the boost is for leave the chamber big to flow unrestricted and also hold a larger fuel and air charge overall. 

Have a link to an example of that distributor setup or the positive value stem seals?
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote unclemoak Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 03 Dec. 2019 at 8:40pm
Originally posted by Nick_ Nick_ wrote:

Have you looked into Haltech? I've been studying ECU's for my RX7 build and they seem to have tons of features, simple user interface, and huge community support. It can also shut down the engine before catastrophic failure. This will read as many sensors as you want to install - including traction control.

If you wanna get real crazy, last week they released a beautiful display unit that plugs right into their ECU's. You can program warnings to flash on the dash if the afr's are dangerously lean, lose a coil, etc.

https://www.haltech.com/haltech-ic-7-display-dash-a-new-way-of-seeing-things/

The IC-7 screen is cheaper than installing a bunch of quality AEM or Innovate gauges to adequately monitor the engine. All of this might be overkill for your project since the ECU setup can be worth more than the Jeep, but just throwing it out there. Sometimes the peace of mind is worth more than swapping multiple blown engines.

That certainly does look like a nice setup, but looks to be quite spendy. I think I'll have maybe $500-600 in my whole EFI setup. 
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Jw60 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 04 Dec. 2019 at 2:19pm


http://www.earlycj5.com/xf_cj5/index.php?threads/turbocharged-134-f-head-finished.87622/#post-937882


I'll dig around the basement a bit to find the distributors. 
Alternatively I've seen gm hei 4cyl distributors modified for the 134.

The seals was a lesson in hard knocks but should be a matter of measuring the valve stem diameter then finding a common engine that shares the spec (dodge 318?)
With that you can mill the boss of the head down centered on the guide.



Edited by Jw60 - 04 Dec. 2019 at 2:27pm
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote unclemoak Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 14 Dec. 2019 at 4:32pm
I had some free time this Saturday, so I braved the cold to find some parts for the EFI setup. In addition to the Micro Squirt ECU, I decided to try to find a donor harness and GM ECU. I lucked out and the local junk yard had one 1990 S10 with a EFI 2.5L Iron Duke that I was able to strip the wiring harness, Sensors, throttle body, and the ECU from. Not too shabby for $60.

Here's the donor 1990 S10.



With the venerable Iron Duke. The yard did have plenty of 4.3L equipped trucks, if I decide to change my mind down the road.


Interesting look at the intake and how the Idle Air Controller vents into the intake. Might have to copy this design on my intake adapter.


It took about three hours of careful unclipping, removing sensors, and wrestling to get this bugger out.


I did get the throttle body too to use as a spare. I was particularly interesting in the injector wiring and grommet, since I couldn't find new ones anywhere and the studs that hold on the air cleaner since they'll likely be reused for the air horn. I also lucked out and found a 10 spline warn hub off a Scout.


Here's the harness in it's entirety. 


These are likely what I'll be able to strip it down to. I was able to get the 02 sensor, both coolant sensors, a MAP sensor, Intake Air Temp, an the ones built in to the TBI -  Idle Air control and Throttle position.

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